Stereotype threat is defined as a “socially premised psychological threat that arises when one is in a situation or doing something for which a negative stereotype about one's group applies” (Steele & Aronson, 1995). According to stereotype threat, members of a marginalized group acknowledge that a negative stereotype exists in reference to their group, and they demonstrate apprehension about confirming the negative stereotype by engaging in particular activities.
See the classic paper by Steele and Aronson (1995) that describes stereotype threat, Stereotype Threat and the Intellectual Test Performance of African Americans
Stereotype Threat Resources and Interventions
Stereotype threat significantly undermines the standardized test performance of women and African-Americans. Interventions can overcome the untoward effects of stereotype threat.
Beasley MA, Fischer MJ. Why they leave: The impact of stereotype threat on the attrition of women and minorities from science, math and engineering majors. Social Psychology of Education. 2012;15(4):427-448.
Cheryan S, Plaut VC, Davies PG, Steele CM. Ambient belonging: How stereotypical cues impact gender participation in computer science. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2009;97(6):1045-1060.
Dennehy TC, Ben‐Zeev A, Tanigawa N. ‘Be prepared’: An implemental mindset for alleviating social‐identity threat. British Journal of Social Psychology. 2014;53(3):585- 594.
Shapiro JR. Different groups, different threats: 306 A multi-threat approach to the experience of stereotype threats. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 2011;37(4):464-480.
Shnabel N, Purdie-Vaughns V, Cook JE, Garcia J, Cohen GL. Demystifying values affirmation interventions writing about social belonging is a key to buffering against identity threat. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 2013;39(5):663-676.
Steele, A Threat in the Air: How Stereotypes Shape Intellectual Identity and Performance.
- Walton & Cohen, A Brief Social-belonging Intervention Improves Academic and Health Outcomes of Minority Students.