Stereotype threat is defined as a “socially premised psychological threat that arises when one is in a situation or doing something for which a negative stereotype about one's group applies” (Steele & Aronson, 1995). According to stereotype threat, members of a marginalized group acknowledge that a negative stereotype exists in reference to their group, and they demonstrate apprehension about confirming the negative stereotype by engaging in particular activities.
See the classic paper by Steele and Aronson (1995) that describes stereotype threat, Stereotype Threat and the Intellectual Test Performance of African Americans
Stereotype Threat Resources and Interventions
Stereotype threat significantly undermines the standardized test performance of women and African-Americans. Interventions can overcome the untoward effects of stereotype threat.
- Steele, A Threat in the Air: How Stereotypes Shape Intellectual Identity and Performance.
- Walton & Cohen, A Brief Social-belonging Intervention Improves Academic and Health Outcomes of Minority Students.